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Australia & New Zealand: Lake Taupo, Whakamaru, Reporoa Caldera

Asia: Lake Toba, Kikai Caldera, Aira Caldera, Mount Tambora, Baekdu Mountain, Mount Aso

Europe: Laacher See, Campi Flegrei, Santorini Volcano

For Known Supervolcano Eruptions in History, also see bottom of this page

Location : State of Wyoming

Last activity : 06.04.2010 | 20.04.2010 | 30.04.2010 | 11.05.2010 | 24.05.2010 | 01.06.2010 | 26.06.2010 | 05.08.2010 | 17.08.2010 | 17.09.2010 | 24.10.2010 | 26.10.2010 | 27.10.2010 | 07.11.2010 | 19.11.2010 | 20.11.2010 | 28.11.2010 | 29.11.2010 | 01.12.2010 | 21.12.2010 | 24.12.2010 | 28.12.2010 | 01.01.2011 | 26.01.2011 | 27.01.2011 | 04.02.2011 | 05.02.2011 | 08.02.2011 | 11.02.2011 | 12.02.2011 (10+) | 16.02.2011 | 17.02.2011 | 18.02.2011 | 25.02.2011 | 01.03.2011 | 03.03.2011 | 29.03.2011 | 13.04.2011 | 08.05.2011 | 19.05.2011 | 02.06.2011 | 08.07.2011 | 06.09.2011 | 08.09.2011 | 11.09.2011 | 16.09.2011 | 08.11.2011 | 22.11.2011 | 08.12.2011 | 17.01.2012 | 04.02.2012 | 14.03.2012 | 20.03.2012 | 03.04.2012 | 06.04.2012 | 24.04.2012 | 26.04.2012 | 03.05.2012 | 10.05.2012 | 25.05.2012 | 01.06.2012 | 18.06.2012 | 20.06.2012 | 21.06.2012 | 22.06.2012 | 28.06.2012 | 04.07.2012 Daythumbs

Webicorders for Yellowstone (Live)

This is the "Plain" style. Other map styles to choose from: Faults1 | Topographic1 | Topographic2

The camera looks west toward Biscuit Basin, at the north end of the Upper Geyser Basin. In the image, the Firehole River flows north (to the right). Behind it, a boardwalk passes Wall Pool, Sapphire Pool and other thermal features. In the background, the tree-covered ridge is composed of the

114,000-year-old West Yellowstone rhyolite flow. This area hosted a variety of rock- hurling hydrothermal (steam) eruptions during the 1930s and in the wake of the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake. In recent years, similar smaller blasts have been known to occur. | Link

Yellowstone National Park, View of Old Faithful Geyser as seen through the front of the visitor education center.

This camera at Mt. Washburn is pointed in a northeasterly direction and shows views of both the Absaroka and Beartooth Mountain Ranges.

Terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs as seen from the second floor of the Albright Visitor Center.

- View both Old Faithful Area webcams side by side -- includes countdown timer, and weather information

About Yellowstone Caldera

The Yellowstone Caldera is the volcanic caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. The caldera is located in the northwest corner of Wyoming, in which the vast majority of the park is contained. The major features of the caldera measure about 55 kilometers (34 mi) by 72 kilometers (45 mi) as determined by geological field work conducted by Bob Christiansen of the United States Geological Survey in the 1960s and 1970s. After a BBC television science program coined the term supervolcano in 2000, it has often been referred to as the Yellowstone Supervolcano. Yellowstone, like Hawaii, is believed to lie on top of an area called a hotspot where light, hot, molten mantle rock rises towards the surface. While the Yellowstone hotspot is now under the Yellowstone Plateau, it previously helped create the eastern Snake River Plain (to the west of Yellowstone) through a series of huge volcanic eruptions. Although the hotspot's apparent motion is to the east-northeast, the North American Plate is really moving west-southwest over the stationary hotspot deep underneath.

Over the past 17 million years or so, this hotspot has generated a succession of violent eruptions and less violent floods of basaltic lava. Together these eruptions have helped create the eastern part of the Snake River Plain from a once-mountainous region. At least a dozen or so of these eruptions were so massive that they are classified as supereruptions. Volcanic eruptions sometimes empty their stores of magma so swiftly that they cause the overlying land to collapse into the emptied magma chamber, forming a geographic depression called a caldera. Calderas formed from explosive supereruptions can be as wide and deep as mid- to large-sized lakes and can be responsible for destroying broad swaths of mountain ranges.

The oldest identified caldera remnant straddles the border near McDermitt, Nevada-Oregon. Progressively younger caldera remnants, most grouped in several overlapping volcanic fields, extend from the Nevada-Oregon border through the eastern Snake River Plain and terminate in the Yellowstone Plateau. One such caldera, the Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera in southern Idaho, was formed between 10 and 12 million years ago, and the event dropped ash to the depth of a foot 1,000 miles (1,600 km) away in northeastern Nebraska and killed a large herd of rhinoceroses, camels, and other animals at Ashfall Fossil Beds State Historical Park. Within the past 17 million years, 142 or more caldera-forming eruptions have occurred from the Yellowstone hotspot . The loosely defined term 'supervolcano' has been used to describe volcanic fields that produce exceptionally large volcanic eruptions. Thus defined, the Yellowstone Supervolcano is the volcanic field which produced the latest three supereruptions from the Yellowstone hotspot. The three super eruptions occurred 2.1 million, 1.3 million, and 640,000 years ago; forming the Island Park Caldera, the Henry's Fork Caldera, and Yellowstone calderas, respectively. The Island Park Caldera supereruption (2.1 million years ago), which produced the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, was the largest and produced 2,500 times as much ash as the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption. The next biggest supereruption formed the Yellowstone Caldera (630,000 years ago) and produced the Lava Creek Tuff. The Henry's Fork Caldera (1.2 million years ago) produced the smaller Mesa Falls Tuff but is the only caldera from the SRP-Y hotspot that is plainly visible today.

Non-explosive eruptions of lava and less-violent explosive eruptions have occurred in and near the Yellowstone caldera since the last supereruption. The most recent lava flow occurred about 70,000 years ago, while the largest violent eruption excavated the West Thumb of Lake Yellowstone around 150,000 years ago. Smaller steam explosions occur as well; an explosion 13,800 years ago left a 5 kilometer diameter crater at Mary Bay on the edge of Yellowstone Lake (located in the center of the caldera). Currently, volcanic activity is exhibited via numerous geothermal vents scattered throughout the region, including the famous Old Faithful Geyser, plus recorded ground swelling indicating ongoing inflation of the underlying magma chamber.

The volcanic eruptions, as well as the continuing geothermal activity, are a result of a great cove of magma located below the caldera's surface. The magma in this cove contains gases that are kept dissolved only by the immense pressure that the magma is under. If the pressure is released to a sufficient degree by some geological shift, then some of the gases bubble out and cause the magma to expand. This can cause a runaway reaction. If the expansion results in further relief of pressure, for example, by blowing crust material off the top of the chamber, the result is a very big gas explosion.

Monitoring Earthquakes in Yellowstone National Park

Last Eruption : 2.1 million years ago

Newest activity : 04 .07.2012

About Island Park Caldera

The volcanic feature commonly called the Island Park Caldera in the state of Idaho, USA, is actually two calderas, one nested inside the other. The Island Park Caldera is the older and much larger caldera, with approximate dimensions of 58 miles (93 km) by 40 miles (64 km). Its ashfall is the source of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff that is found from southern California to the Mississippi River near St. Louis. This supereruption (2500 cubic kilometers) occurred 2.1 million years BP and produced 2,500 times as much ash as the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption. The caldera clearly visible today is the later Henry's Fork Caldera that is the source of the Mesa Falls Tuff. It was formed in an eruption of more than 280 cubic kilometers 1.3 million years BP. The two nested calderas share the same rim on their western sides, but the older Island Park Caldera is much larger and more oval and extends well into Yellowstone Park. The Island Park Caldera is sometimes referred to as the First Phase Yellowstone Caldera or the Huckleberry Ridge Caldera. To the southwest of the caldera lies the Snake River Plain, which was formed by a succession of older calderas marking the path of the Yellowstone hotspot. The Plain is a depression, sinking under the weight of the volcanic rocks that formed it, through which the Snake River winds. Other observable volcanic features in the Plain include: the Menan Buttes, the Big Southern Butte, Craters of the Moon, the Wapi Lava Field and Hell's Half Acre. These calderas are in an area called Island Park that is known for beautiful forests, large springs, clear streams, waterfalls, lakes, ponds, marshes, wildlife, and fishing. Harriman State Park is located in the caldera. Snowmobiling, fishing, and Nordic skiing, and wildlife viewing are popular activities in the area. The peaks of the Grand Tetons to the southeast are visible from places in the caldera.

Country : North-America, USA, State of California

Long Valley Caldera is a depression in eastern California that is adjacent to Mammoth Mountain. The valley is one of the largest calderas on earth, measuring about 20 miles (32 km) long (east-west) and 11 miles (18 km) wide (north-south). The elevation of the floor of the caldera is 6,500 feet (2,000 m) in the east and 8,500 feet (2,600 m) in the west. The elevation of the caldera walls reach 9,800-11,500 feet (3,000-3,500 m) except in the east where the wall rises only 500 feet (150 m) to an elevation of 7,550 feet (2,300 m). Long Valley was formed 760,000 years ago when a huge volcanic eruption released very hot ash that later cooled to form the Bishop tuff that is common to the area. The eruption was so colossal that the magma chamber under the now destroyed volcano was significantly emptied to the point of collapse. The collapse itself caused an even larger secondary eruption of pyroclastic ash that burned and buried thousands of square miles. Ash from this eruption blanketed much of the western part of what is now the United States. Geologists call topographic depressions formed in this manner calderas.

Subsequent eruptions from the Long Valley magma chamber were confined within the caldera with extrusions of relatively hot (crystal-free) rhyolite 700,000 to 600,000 years ago as the caldera floor was upwarped to form the resurgent dome followed by extrusions of cooler, crystal-rich moat rhyolite at 200,000-year intervals (500,000, 300,000, and 100,000 years ago) in clockwise succession around the resurgent dome. At its height 600,000 years ago, an Owens River-fed 300 foot (91 m) deep lake filled the caldera and rose to an elevation of 7,800 feet (2,400 m) above sea level. The lake was drained sometime in the last 100,000 years after it overtopped the southern rim of the caldera, eroded the sill and created the Owens River Gorge. A dam in the gorge has partially restored part of that lake which is now known as Lake Crowley. Since the great eruption many hot springs developed in the area and the resurgent dome has uplifted. During the last ice age, glaciers filled the canyons leading to Long Valley, but the valley floor was clear of ice. Excellent examples of terminal moraines can be seen at Long Valley: these moraines are the debris left from glacial sculpting. Laurel Creek, Convict Creek, and McGee Creek all have prominent moraines.

In May of 1980, a strong earthquake swarm that included four Richter magnitude 6 earthquakes struck the southern margin of Long Valley Caldera associated with a 10 inch (25-cm), dome-shaped uplift of the caldera floor. These events marked the onset of the latest period of caldera unrest that continues to this day. This ongoing unrest includes recurring earthquake swarms and continued dome-shaped uplift of the central section of the caldera (the resurgent dome) accompanied by changes in thermal springs and gas emissions.[1] After the quake another road was created as an escape route. Its name at first was proposed as the "Mammoth Escape Route" but was changed to the Mammoth Scenic Loop after Mammoth area businesses and land owners complained. In 1982, the United States Geological Survey under the Volcano Hazards Program began an intensive effort to monitor and study geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera. The goal of this effort is to provide residents and civil authorities in the area reliable information on the nature of the potential hazards posed by this unrest and timely warning of an impending volcanic eruption, should it develop.[1] Most, perhaps all, volcanic eruptions are preceded and accompanied by geophysical and geochemical changes in the volcanic system. Common precursory indicators of volcanic activity include increased seismicity, ground deformation, and variations in the nature and rate of gas emissions.

Monitoring Volcanic Unrest at Long Valley Caldera , California http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/lvo/

1.12 million years ago

Newest activity : 05.05.2011

Valles Caldera (or Jemez Caldera), is a 12-mile-wide collapsed volcanic caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. Within its caldera, Valle Grande is the largest valle (grass valley) and the only one with a paved road. Valles Caldera is one of the smaller volcanoes in the supervolcano class. The circular topographic rim of the caldera measures 19 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The caldera and surrounding volcanic structures are the most thoroughly studied caldera complex in the United States. Research studies have concerned the fundamental processes of magmatism, hydrothermal systems, and ore deposition. Nearly 40 deep cores have been examined, resulting in extensive subsurface data.

The Valles Caldera is the younger of two calderas known at this location, having collapsed over and buried the Toledo Caldera, which in turn may have collapsed over yet older calderas. The associated Cerros del Rio volcanic field, which forms the eastern Pajarito Plateau and the Caja del Rio, is older than the Toledo Caldera. These two large calderas formed during eruptions 1.47 million and 1.15 million years ago.[6] The Caldera and surrounding area continue to be shaped by ongoing volcanic activity. The El Cajete Pumice, Battleship Rock Ignimbrite, Banco Bonito Rhyolite, and the VC-1 Rhyolite were emplaced during the youngest eruption of Valles caldera, about 50,000â??60,000 years ago. Seismic investigations show that a low-velocity zone lies beneath the caldera, and an active geothermal system with hot springs and fumaroles exists today.

The volcanic properties of the Valles Caldera make it a likely source for renewable and nonpolluting geothermal energy. However, some people oppose development of the geothermal energy, considering it destructive to scenic beauty and recreational and grazing use. The lower Bandelier tuff which can be seen along canyon walls west of the Valles Caldera, including San Diego Canyon, is related to the eruption and collapse of the Toledo Caldera. The upper Bandelier tuff is believed to have been deposited during eruption and collapse of the Valles Caldera. The now eroded and exposed orange-tan, light-colored Bandelier tuff from these events creates the stunning mesas of the Pajarito Plateau. These calderas and associated volcanic structures lie within the Jemez Volcanic Field. This volcanic field lies above the intersection of the Rio Grande Rift, which runs north-south through New Mexico, and the Jemez Lineament, which extends from southeastern Arizona northeast to western Oklahoma. The volcanic activity here is related to the tectonic movements of this intersection.

27.8 million years ago

La Garita Caldera is a large volcanic caldera located in the San Juan volcanic field in the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado, United States, to the west of the town of La Garita, Colorado. The eruption that created the La Garita Caldera was, perhaps, the largest known explosive eruption in all of Earth's history (the Siberian Traps may have been larger but the cause is still being debated). The La Garita Caldera is one of a number of calderas that formed during a massive ignimbrite flare-up in Colorado, Utah and Nevada from 40â??25 million years ago, and was the site of truly enormous eruptions about 28â??26 million years ago, during the Oligocene Epoch. The area devastated by the La Garita eruption is thought to have covered a significant portion of what is now Colorado, and ash could have fallen as far as the east coast of North America and the Caribbean. The scale of La Garita volcanism was far beyond anything known in human history. The resulting deposit, known as the Fish Canyon Tuff, has a volume of approximately 1,200 cubic miles (5,000 km3), enough material to fill Lake Michigan (in comparison, the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens was only 0.25 cubic miles (1.0 km3) in volume). By contrast, the most powerful human-made explosive device ever detonated, the Tsar Bomba or Emperor Bomb, had a yield of 50 megatons, whereas the eruption at La Garita was approximately 105 times more powerful. It is possibly the most energetic event on Earth since the Chicxulub impact, which was 50 times more powerful.

26,500 years ago

Newest activity : 07.07.2012

Taupo volcano first began to erupt over 300,000 years ago. It is very large and has many vents, most of which are now under Lake Taupo. Taupo is not a large mountain because the eruptions have been so explosive that all material has been deposited far from the vent and subsequent collapse of the ground has formed a caldera (a collapsed volcano).

Lake Taupo is a lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. With a surface area of 616 square kilometres (238 sq mi), it is the largest lake by surface area in New Zealand, and the largest freshwater lake by surface area in Oceania. Lake Taupo has a perimeter of approximately 193 kilometres, a deepest point of 186 metres. It is drained by the Waikato River (New Zealand's longest river), while its main tributaries are the Waitahanui River, the Tongariro River, and the Tauranga-Taupo River. It is a noted trout fishery with stocks of introduced brown trout and rainbow trout. The lake lies in a caldera created following a huge volcanic eruption (see supervolcano) approximately 26,500 years ago. According to geological records, the volcano has erupted 28 times in the last 27,000 years. It has predominantly erupted rhyolitic lava although Mount Tauhara formed from dacitic lava.

The largest eruption, known as the Oruanui eruption, ejected an estimated 1,170 cubic kilometres of material and caused several hundred square kilometres of surrounding land to collapse and form the caldera. The caldera later filled with water, eventually overflowing to cause a huge outwash flood. Several later eruptions occurred over the millennia before the most recent major eruption, which occurred in 180 CE. Known as the Hatepe eruption, it is believed to have ejected 100 cubic kilometres of material, of which 30 cubic kilometres was ejected in the space of a few minutes. This was one of the most violent eruptions in the last 5,000 years (alongside the Tianchi eruption of Baekdu at around 1000 and the 1815 eruption of Tambora), with a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating of 7. The eruption column was twice as high as the eruption column from Mount St. Helens in 1980, and the ash turned the sky red over Rome and China. The eruption devastated much of the North Island and further expanded the lake. The area was uninhabited by humans at the time of the eruption, since New Zealand was not settled by the Maori until several centuries later at the earliest. Taupo's last known eruption occurred around 210 CE, with lava dome extrusion forming the Horomatangi Reefs, but that eruption was much smaller than the 11z0 CE eruption. The 180 eruption was one of the largest in recorded history. The skies and sunsets formed from this eruption were noted by Roman and Chinese observers. Any possible climatic effects of the eruption would have been concentrated on the southern hemisphere due to the southerly position of Lake Taupo. Underwater hydrothermal activity continues near the Horomatangi vent, and the volcano is currently considered to be dormant rather than extinct.

254,000 years ago

Country : NZL, Australia & New-Zealand, New Zealand

Last Eruption : 230,000 years ago

The Reporoa caldera is a 10 km by 15 km caldera in New Zealand's Taupo Volcanic Zone. It formed some 230,000 years ago, in a large eruption that deposited the approximately 100 km3 Kaingaroa Ignimbrites. It contains three rhyolitic lava domes (Deer Hill, Kairuru and Pukekahu) and the active Reporoa geothermal field. The Waiotapu geothermal area lies just north of the caldera rim, while the Broadlands thermal area lies to the south. The Waikato River runs through the southern half of the caldera. In April 2005, a large hydrothermal explosion occurred in a cow paddock within the caldera, creating a 50-metre crater. A similar explosion took place in the area in 1948, and smaller explosions have occurred in the intervening years.

74,000 years ago

Newest activity : 08.05.2012

The Toba eruption (the Toba event) occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 67,500 to 75,500 years ago. The Toba eruption was the latest of a series of at least three caldera-forming eruptions which have occurred at the volcano, with earlier calderas having formed around 700,000 and 840,000 years ago. The last eruption had an estimated Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8 (described as "mega-colossal"), making it possibly the largest explosive volcanic eruption within the last twenty-five million years.

Bill Rose and Craig Chesner of Michigan Technological University have deduced that the total amount of erupted material was about 2,800 km3 (670 cu mi) â?? around 2,000 km3 (480 cu mi) of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, and around 800 km3 (190 cu mi) that fell as ash, with the wind blowing most of it to the west. The pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of 20,000 square kilometres (7,722 sq mi), with ash deposits as thick as 600 metres (1,969 ft) by the main vent.

To give an idea of its magnitude, consider that although the eruption took place in Indonesia, it deposited an ash layer approximately 15 centimetres thick over the entire Indian subcontinent; at one site in central India, the Toba ash layer today is up to 6 metres thick[9] and parts of Malaysia were covered with 9 m of ashfall.[10] In addition it has been calculated that 1010 metric tons of sulphuric acid[citation needed]was ejected into the atmosphere by the event, causing acid rain fallout.

The Toba caldera is the only supervolcano in existence that can be described as Yellowstone's "bigger" sister. With 2,800 km3 of ejecta, it was an even greater eruption than the supereruption (2,500 km3) of 2.1 million years ago that created the Island Park Caldera in Idaho, USA. The eruption was also about three times the size of the latest Yellowstone eruption of Lava Creek 630,000 years ago. For further comparison, the largest volcanic eruption in historic times, in 1815 at Mount Tambora (Indonesia), ejected the equivalent of around 100 km3 (24 cu mi) of dense rock and made 1816 the "Year Without a Summer" in the whole northern hemisphere, whilst the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State ejected around 1.2 km3 (0.29 cu mi) of material.

The subsequent collapse formed a caldera that, after filling with water, created Lake Toba. The island in the center of the lake is formed by a resurgent dome.

Landsat photo of Sumatra surrounding Lake Toba. Though the year may never be precisely determined, the season can: only the summer monsoon could have deposited Toba ashfall in the South China Sea, implying that the eruption took place sometime during the northern summer.[12] The eruption lasted perhaps two weeks, but the ensuing "volcanic winter" resulted in a decrease in average global temperatures by 3 to 3.5 degrees Celsius for several years. Greenland ice cores record a pulse of starkly reduced levels of organic carbon sequestration. Very few plants or animals in southeast Asia would have survived, and it is possible that the eruption caused a planet-wide die-off. There is some evidence, based on mitochondrial DNA, that the human race may have passed through a genetic bottleneck around this time, reducing genetic diversity below what would be expected from the age of the species. According to the Toba catastrophe theory proposed by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1998, human populations may have been reduced to only a few tens of thousands of individuals by the Toba eruption.

Smaller eruptions have occurred at Toba since. The small cone of Pusukbukit has formed on the southwestern margin of the caldera and lava domes. The most recent eruption may have been at Tandukbenua on the northwestern caldera edge, since the present lack of vegetation could be due to an eruption within the last few hundred years. Some parts of the caldera have experienced uplift due to partial refilling of the magma chamber, for example pushing Samosir Island and the Uluan Peninsula above the surface of the lake. The lake sediments on Samosir Island show that it has been uplifted by at least 450 metres[7] since the cataclysmic eruption. Such uplifts are common in very large calderas, apparently due to the upward pressure of unerupted magma. Toba is probably the largest resurgent caldera on Earth. Large earthquakes have occurred in the vicinity of the volcano more recently, notably in 1987 along the southern shore of the lake at a depth of 11 km.[15] Other earthquakes have occurred in the area in 1892, 1916, and 1920-1922.

Lake Toba lies near the Great Sumatran fault which runs along the centre of Sumatra in the Sumatra Fracture Zone. The volcanoes of Sumatra and Java are part of the Sunda Arc, a result of the northeasterly movement of the Indo-Australian Plate which is sliding under the eastward-moving Eurasian Plate. The subduction zone in this area is very active: the seabed near the west coast of Sumatra has had several major earthquakes since 1995, including the 9.3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and the 8.7 2005 Sumatra earthquake, the epicenters of which were around 300 km from Toba.

On 12 September 2007, a magnitude 8.5 Earthquake shook the ground in Sumatra and was felt in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. The epicenter for this earthquake was not as close as the previous two earthquakes, but it was in the same vicinity. Most of the people who live around Lake Toba are ethnically Bataks. Traditional Batak houses are noted for their distinctive roofs (which curve upwards at each end, as a boat's hull does) and their colorful decor.

Newest activity : 10.06.2012

Location : Island of Kyushu

About Aira Caldera

Last activity : 01.05.2010 | 08.05.2010 | 17.07.2010 | 16.08.2010 | 27.09.2010 | 05.10.2010 | 19.10.2010 | 21.10.2010 | 13.03.2011 | 20.03.2011 | 17.06.2011 | 20.09.2011 | 07.11.2011 | 30.11.2011 | 04.12.2011 | 05.12.2011 | 14.01.2012 | 31.01.2012 | 16.02.2012 | 04.03.2012 | 30.04.2012 |

History's deadliest volcano comes back to life in Indonesia, sparking panic among villagers

Residents Evacuated As Mount Tambora Volcano Activity Increases

Location : The border North Korea and China

March 29, 2011: Concern over Super Volcano Mt. Baekdu eruption growing

http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/ww w/news/nation/2011/03/117_8410 2.html

Baekdu Mountain, also known as Changbai Mountain in China, is a volcanic mountain on the border between North Korea and China. Baekdu Mountain is stratovolcano whose cone is truncated by a large caldera, about 5 km (3.1 miles) wide and 850 m (2,789 ft) deep, partially filled by the waters of Heaven Lake. The caldera was created by a major eruption in 969 AD (Âa 20 years). Volcanic ash from this eruption has been found as far away as the southern part of Hokkaido of Japan. The lake has a circumference of 12 to 14 kilometres (7.5-8.7 miles), with an average depth of 213 m (699 ft) and maximum depth of 384 m (1,260 ft). From mid-October to mid-June, the lake is typically covered with ice. The central section of the mountain rises about 3 mm every year, due to rising levels of magma below the central part of the mountain. Sixteen peaks exceeding 2,500 m (8,200 ft) line the caldera rim surrounding Heaven Lake. The highest peak, called Janggun Peak, is covered in snow about eight months of the year. The slope is relatively gentle until about 1,800 metres (5,905 ft). Water flows north out of the lake, and near the outlet there is a 70 metre (230 ft) waterfall. The mountain is the source of the Songhua, Tumen (Duman) and Yalu (Amnok) rivers.

80,000 years ago

About Mount Aso

The present Aso caldera formed as a result of four huge caldera eruptions occurring over a range of 90,000â??300,000 years ago. The caldera, one of the largest in the world, contains the city of Aso as well as Aso Takamori-cho and South Aso-mura. The somma enclosing the caldera extends about 18 km east to west and about 25 km north to south. Viewpoints from the somma overlooking the caldera are perched upon lava formed before the volcanic activity which created the present caldera. Ejecta from the huge caldera eruption 90,000 years ago covers more than 600 km3 and roughly equals the volume of Mt. Fuji; it is presumed that the pyroclastic flow plateau covered half of Kyushu.

The eruption which formed the present somma occurred approximately 300,000 years ago. Four large-scale eruptions (Aso 1 â?? 4) occurred during a period extending from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. As large amounts of pyroclastic flow and volcanic ash were emitted from the volcanic chamber, a huge depression (caldera) was formed as the chamber collapsed. The fourth eruption (Aso 4) was the largest, with volcanic ash covering the entire Kyushu region and even extending to Yamaguchi Prefecture. Mt. Taka, Mt. Naka, Mt. Eboshi, and Mt. Kishima are cones formed following the fourth above-mentioned huge caldera eruption. Mt. Naka remains active today. It is presumed that Mt. Neko is older than the fourth huge caldera eruption. Aso's pyroclastic flow deposits (welded tuff) were utilized for bridge construction in the region. There are approximately 320 arched stone bridges in Kumamoto Prefecture, including the Tsujun-kyo and Reidai-kyo bridges on Midorikawa River, which are important national cultural properties.

Unusual geological event in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate, Laacher See) on Monday, 02 January, 2012 at 15:05 (03:05 PM) UTC - Fresh activity near a dormant 'super volcano' in Germany has left experts worried about a possible eruption. Britain's Daily Mail wrote the eruption from the 'monster' underneath Laacher See lake near Bonn, could eject billions of tons of magma which in turn could cause wid espead devastation in Europe and even 'short-term global cooling'. The mountain last erupted 12,900 years ago. Volcanologists have estimated the mountain's size to be similar to that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines - responsible for the biggest ejection of the 20th century. Pinatubo threw up '10 billion tons of magma, 20 billion tons of sulphur dioxide 16 cubic kilometres of ash and caused a 0.5C drop in global temperatures'. Experts near the Laacher See site have detected carbon dioxide bubbles on the lake's surface and believe the mountain in Germany could be active again http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/ site/ ?pageid=event_desc&edis_id=UGE- 20120102-33614-DEU

Is a super-volcano just 390 miles from London about to erupt?

* It's similar in size to Mount Pinatubo, which in 1991 gave us the biggest eruption of the 20th century

* Billions of tons of ash and magma would be ejected

PDF: Impact of the Late Glacial Eruption of the Laacher See Volcano,

The caldera was formed after the Laacher See eruption dated to 12'900 years ago. The remaining crust collapsed into the empty magma chamber below, probably two or three days after the eruption.[4] With an estimated 6 km3 of magma erupted, this eruption was slightly larger than the 1991 eruption of Pinatubo (Philippines). The Laacher eruption concides with the onset of the abrupt Younger Dryas reglaciation, which brought renewed very cold conditions to the northern hemisphere from 12.9 to 11.6 ka. However, any relationship between this climate change and the eruption is speculative; eruptions of the size of the Laacher See eruption usually cause only short-term global cooling. Remains of this eruption can be found all over Europe and the tephra is often used for dating of sediments. A number of unique minerals can be found in the region, and quarries mine the stone as a building material. The Laacher is a potentially active volcano, proven by seismic activities and heavy thermal anomalies under the lake. Carbon dioxide gas from magma still bubbles up at the southeastern shore, and scientists believe that a new eruption could happen at any time, which, today, would be a disaster beyond all description.

Last activity : 18.08.2010 | 22.08.2010 | 23.08.2010 | 31.08.2010 | 10.09.2010 | 12.09.2010 | 15.09.2010 | 21.09.2010 | 11.10.2010 | 15.10.2010 | 29.10.2010 | 11.11.2010 | 27.11.2010 | 30.11.2010 | 02.12.2010 | 06.12.2010 | 15.12.2010 | 20.12.2010 | 31.12.2010 | 13.01.2011 | 27.01.2011 | 05.02.2011 | 06.02.2011 | 11.03.2011 | 12.03.2011 | 13.03.2011 | 14.03.2011 | 15.03.2011 | 16.03.2011 | 17.03.2011 (7)| 18.03.2011 | 19.03.2011 | 20.03.2011 | 21.03.2011 | 22.03.2011 (5) | 24.03.2011 | 27.03.2011 | 29.03.2011 | 31.03.2011 | 01.04.2011 (2) | 02.04,2011 | 04.04.2011 | 09.04.2011 | 10.04.2011 | 12.04.2011 | 13.04.2011 | 14.04.2011 | 15.04.2011 | 17.04.2011 (6) | 18.04.2011 (3)| 19.04.2011 | 21.04.2011 (2)| 24.04.2011 | 27.04.2011 | 02.05.2011 | 04.05.2011 | 07.05.2011 | 15.05.2011 | 16.05.2011 | 22.05.2011 | 24.05.2011 | 29.05.2011 | 30.05.2011 | 31.05.2011 | 01.06.2011 | 06.06.2011 | 07.06.2011 | 08.06.2011 | 13.06.2011 | 22.06.2011 | 23.06.2011 | 25.06.2011 | 26.06.2011 | 27.06.2011 | 28.06.2011 | 30.06.2011 | 04.07.2011 | 07.07.2011 | 15.07.2011 | 27.07.2011 | 28.07.2011 | 31.07.2011 | 04.08.2011 | 05.08.2011 | 07.08.2011 | 09.08.2011 | 14.08.2011 | 16.08.2011 | 06.09.2011 | 07.09.2011 | 08.09.2011 | 17.09.2011 | 19.09.2011 | 28.09.2011 | 01.10.2011 | 03.10.2011 | 19.10.2011 | 22.10.2011 | 20.11.2011 | 25.11.2011 | 01.01.2012 | 31.01.2012 | 13.02.2012 | 22.02.2012 | 14.03.2012 | 18.03.2012 | 22.03.2012 | 25.03.2012 | 02.04.2012 | 04.05.2012 | 22.05.2012 | 23.05.2012 | 03.06.2012 | 05.06.2012 | 06.06.2012 | 12.06.2012 |

Details & Map: http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/read/index.php?pageid=svolcano_index&svid=12

Last Eruption: 1927

Last activity: 13.11.2011 | 14.11.2011 | 15.11.2011 | 19.11.2011 | 21.11.2011 | 22.11.2011 | 23.11.2011 | 24.11.2011 | 26.11.2011 | 29.11.2011 | 30.11.2011 | 06.12.2011 | 07.12.2011 | 08.12.2011 | 09.12.2011 | 10.12.2011 | 12.12.2011 | 13.12.2011 | 15.12.2011 | 18.12.2011 | 21.12.2011 | 22.12.2011 | 24.12.2011 | 25.12.2011 | 26.12.2011 | 29.12.2011 | 30.12.2011 |

2012: 02.01.2012 | 03.01.2012 | 06.01.2012 | 08.01.2012 | 09.12.2011 | 12.01.2012 | 13.01.2012 | 17.01.2012 | 18.01.2012 | 22.01.2012 | 23.01.2012 | 24.01.2012 | 26.01.2012 | 27.01.2012 | 28.01.2012 | 29.01.2011 | 30.01.2012 | 31.01.2012 | 03.02.2012 | 04.02.2012 | 05.02.2012 | 06.02.2012 | 08.02.2012 | 10.02.2012 | 11.02.2011 | 12.02.2012 | 13.02.2012 | 15.02.2012 | 16.02.2012 | 18.02.2012 | 20.02.2012 | 23.02.2012 | 25.02.2012 | 28.02.2012 | 29.02.2012 | 04.03.2012 | 05.03.2012 | 06.03.2012 | 22.03.2012 | 25.03.2012 | 27.03.2012 | 01.04.2012 | 03.04.2012 | 12.04.2012 | 16.04.2012 | 17.04.2012 | 18.04.2012 | 23.04.2012 | 28.04.2012 | 29.04.2012 | 30.04.2012 | 08.05.2012 | 17.05.2012 | 25.05.2012 | 29.05.2012 | 04.06.2012 | 07.06.2012 | 12.06.2012 | 03.07.2012 | 04.07.2012 | 05.07.2012 |

The seismic unrest beneath Santorini which had started in July 2011 continues into 2012, greeting the world with a small swarm of quakes beneath the caldera. The slightly increased number of quakes is concentrated on the volcano-tectonic Kameni line, which stretches SW-NE through the caldera and extends outside, especially to the NE where the submarine volcano Kolumbo is located 8 km off the coast . The alignment defines a tectonic graben structure underlying Santorini and has been used for rising magma for nearly all past eruptions of the volcano. http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/ site/ ?pageid=event_update_read&edis_ id=VA-20111214-33385-GRC&uid=1 2044

Situation Update No. 3 on Sunday, 29 January, 2012 at 16:17 UTC

The highly unusual swarm of earthquakes SW of Santorini on the main fault zone that also defines the volcanic vents of the region continues with about 10 quakes larger than magnitude 2 during the past 24 hours. 2 of the quakes were magnitude 4 and 4.7, respectively. Greek media start to pick up the story and become increasingly interested: Today the wall of silence seems to be falling as a major sunday newspaper has exclusive interviews with a number of greek seismologists and geologists on the matter and some information is now public.

'Atlantis' volcano gives tips for mega-eruptions - The archaeological site of Akrotiri on the Greek Santorini (Thera) island is pictured in 2005. Around 1630 BC, a super-volcano blew apart the Aegean island of Santorini, an event so violent that some theorists say it nurtured the legend of Atlantis. http://www.physorg.com/news/ 2012-02-atlantis-volcano-mega-e ruptions.html

Situation Update No. 6 on Wednesday, 21 March, 2012 at 20:15 UTC

Last week saw a lot of news about a new study that measured inflation at Santorini in the Aegean Sea occurring over the last 5 years. Combine that with the sharp increase in earthquakes, and it all points to magma rising under the famed caldera. The lead scientist on the research, Andrew Newman of Georgia Tech, estimates

0.14 cubic km of magma has entered the upper part of the magmatic system under Santorini since January 2011 (clearly not an insignificant volume). You can get an idea of the rates and directions of inflation from this animated GIF from the research group. Now, any time a volcano with a legendary eruption like the Thera eruption that may have played a role in the fall of the Minoan empire, you definitely expect hyperbole and hysteria from the media. However, if an eruption happens at Santorini, expect it to be like the eruptions in 1939 and 1950. These eruptions added to the domes in the middle of the Thera caldera – impressive events on their own, but not the cataclysmic event of

Volcano Behind Atlantis Legend Re-Awakens - The volcano that may have given rise to the legend of Atlantis has awakened, researchers say. http://news.yahoo.com/volcano-behind-atlantis-legend-awakens-140601511.html

The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption or Santorini eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a Dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of 60 cubic kilometres (14 cu mi),[1] which is estimated to have occurred in the mid second millennium BCE. The eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history. The eruption devastated the island of Thera (also called Santorini), including the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri, as well as communities and agricultural areas on nearby islands and on the coast of Crete. The eruption seems to have inspired certain Greek myths[6] and may have caused turmoil in Egypt. Additionally, it has been speculated that the Minoan eruption and the destruction of the city at Akrotiri provided the basis for or otherwise inspired Plato's story of Atlantis.

VEI 8

VEI 8 eruptions have happened in the following locations.

74,000 years ago (

2,800 km³)

Whakamaru, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand—Whakamaru Ignimbrite/Mount Curl Tephra

The Lake Toba eruption plunged the Earth into a volcanic winter , which was claimed to have eradicated 60% of the human population, though humans managed to survive even in the vicinity of the volcano and the theory is disputed.

VEI-7 volcanic events, less colossal but still supermassive, have occurred in the geological past. The only ones in historic times are Tambora , in 1815, Lake Taupo (Hatepe), around 180 CE, and possibly Baekdu Mountain , 969 CE (± 20 years).

110 km³)

Rotoiti Ignimbrite, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand—

240 km³)

Campi Flegrei, Naples , Italy —39,280 ±?110 years ago (500 km³) Aso, Kyushu, Japan—four large explosive eruptions between 300,000 to 80,000 years ago (last one >600 km³) Reporoa Caldera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand—230,000 years ago (

100 km³)

Mamaku Ignimbrite, Rotorua Caldera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand—240,000 years ago (>280 km³) Matahina Ignimbrite, Haroharo Caldera, Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand—280,000 years ago (

10–12 million years ago (>250 km³) (responsible for the Ashfall Fossil Beds

50 million years ago (850 km³)

By way of comparison, the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption was at the lower end of VEI-5 with 1.2 km 3 , and both Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and Krakatoa in 1883 were VEI-6 with 10 km 3 (2.4 cu mi) and 25 km 3 (6.0 cu mi) DRE, respectively.

Below is a list of webcams of U.S. volcanoes. All webcams are operated by the USGS, unless otherwise noted.

The images below are not the webcams but links to the webcams. The images were taken in the past by cameras and are meant to show the approximate area, not necessarily the view from the webcam.

west side of the island, Alaska (AVO)

Kilauea Volcano (HVO)

- best during low light (AVO)

Planchon Peteroa - info - webcam

Washington : MOUNT ADAMS - Petries1

Hawai'i (United States)

Kermadec Islands (monitoring administered by GNS New Zealand)

Alaska (United States)

Stromboli and Vulcano - info Stromboli - info Vulcano - multiple webcams

Tawi Cam Amboseli, Kenya webcam

World Map of Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Impact Craters, and Plate Tectonics http://mineralsciences.si.edu/tdpmap/

Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) - Link to Pacific Northwest Seismic Network Volcanoes page with links to webicorders (seismic activity ) for major volcanoes in Washington and Oregon. For Northern California Cascade volcanoes, please see the USGS Earthquake California and Nevada page .


Long Valley Observatory (LVO) - Link to main LVO page . Includes links to monitoring data for earthquakes, deformation, hydrologic, and other types of monitoring for the Long Valley Caldera area.


Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) - Link to YVO monitoring data page including earthquakes, deformation, and hydrologic for the Yellowstone region.